- Doctor Deepak Vaidya
- Surgery Cataract Surgery
- Date April 27, 2018
What is Cataract
The crystalline lens helps in focusing an image on the Retina. It is clear and transparent. But, with age, this lens can become cloudy and opaque. Any opacity in the crystalline lens leads to decreased vision. This opacity in the lens is what cataract is.
It develops over a long period of time: months, or even years altogether. It usually affects both the eyes. The first characteristic to get affected is distance vision. As the lens becomes cloudier and rigid, it may deteriorate close vision as well.
While cataract is one of the most common causes of vision loss, it is only surgery that treats it. There are no medications that will clear the cataract or reverse it.
Causes of Cataract
- Ageing – Ageing is the most common cause of cataract
- Diabetes – If Diabetic patient doesn’t have control over glucose levels remain high can cause the lens to swell leads to cataract formation
Cataracts are two to five times more frequent in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes and can significantly impact visual function
- U. V. radiation from Sun
- Injury to the eye
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Exposure to heavy dose of radiation
- Medication – Heavy medication, like steroids could cause it
Cataract is a troublesome disease. Even routine activities could become problematic for the patient. Activities like reading and driving also become a difficult task. Complaints of seeing colored dots or halos are common. So are complaints of seeing dual images and poor night vision are common.
How is cataract detected?
- Regular eye check up are necessary and important. Especially for people over the age of 40.
- Vision test: A simple vision test can detect cataract as well.
- Slit-lamp exam
- Fundus Examination
Up until now, the only treatment for cataract is surgery. There is no other medical treatment for the same. Cataract can hinder daily activities like reading, drawing and watching TV. Before one incurs this, they should get it treated.
Surgical removal of a cataract is a simple process. It is one of the most frequently performed surgeries considered to be very effective and safest procedures. Most of the cases been done under Topical, no injection, No patch, No pain and some of the cases being done under local or general anesthesia. Patients often return home the very same day.
It is advisable to get it removed at the early stages and not wait until the vision deteriorates. The process of the surgery involves the removal of the clouded lens. It is replaced with a clear artificial lens implant: an intraocular lens or IOL. The IOL is a permanent solution. It provides natural peripheral vision and depth perception.
There are two treatment options for it:
The conventional technique is Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction or EECE, also called SICS. To perform this operation, injections are given near the eye. Then, incisions of 10-12 mm are made. After which the lens is taken out with special tools. Stitches might be required after this procedure. In the case of this technique, the likelihood of getting a cylindrical number is more.
Modern Technique –
The modern technique is Phaco Emulsification. It is the latest technology for cataract removal. Here, the cataract is emulsified and removed by Ultrasound energy. To do this can be done with smallest incision of 1.8 mm & the lens is broken into small pieces. These pieces are then suctioned out. After this, the foldable intraocular lens, or IOL, is implanted.
Lenses used during Surgery
This implant is the most basic lens implant used to correct vision. Until recently, all lens implants were monofocal.
While it can provide a clear vision, it improves distance vision more. For example, with this lens, one would be able to go to the movies or drive easily. But they won’t be able to see their computer screens clearly.
The monofocal lens does not correct near vision. Thus, patients who choose monofocal lens implants have to be dependent on spectacles. This is true for about 70% of the cases.
This lens, as the name suggests, has more than one points of focus. A bifocal, a type of multifocal lens, has two points of focus. One is at a distance, and the other one if near. Multifocal lenses are an alternative to bifocals. These enable one to see comfortably at all distances.
These lenses have a combined surface of sphere and cylinder. They are used for vision correction in case of Astigmatism, myopia or hypermetropia. Astigmatism is a refractive error in the eye. Parallel rays of light from an external source of light do not converge on a single point on the retina. If astigmatism is only in one eye, the patient can use a toric lens for that eye and an ordinary spherical lens for the other.
Implantable Contact Lens (ICL)
The ICL operation (Collamer material ) can be perform with minimally invasive. With only a 3.5 mm incision & recovery time very short . Patients can usually expect a 20-30 minute to complete the procedure and most people are able to resume daily activities in just a few days with clearer vision
These lenses can provide vision at multiple distances. Their mechanism is similar to the natural crystalline lens. It attempts to imitate the eye’s natural accommodation of light. By moving in backward and forward motion in response to the pressure inside the eye, is how it happens.
Accommodative lenses and multifocal lenses are used for far-sightedness, near-sightedness and astigmatism. A simple examination with our refractive surgeon determines if these lenses are apt for your eyes.