Cornea

  • Date February 2, 2020

CORNEA

Cornea is the clear, transparent tissue in front of the Eyes, which allows light to pass through the pupil, lens and on to the Retina.
For a quality vision a healthy, clear cornea is most important Any damage like injury, infection, or trauma can result into corneal swelling , scarred or misshapen which leads to distorted vision. More than 10 Million people are affected worldwide after Cataract, Glaucoma, Diabetes and Age related macular degeneration.

Some of the leading causes of dull vision or Corneal Blindness are:

  1. Keratoconus
  2. Keratitis infection of cornea
  3. Chemical injury
  4. Corneal Dystrophies and degenerative corneal disorders
  5. Corneal Opacity

Keratoconus

The Cornea gets thin & conical causing distorted vision and high cylindrical power.  More commonly seen in children with seasonal allergy and eye rubbing.
The patient mostly complaint of blurry vision, double vision, nearsightedness

To diagnose keratoconus

  1. Eye refraction:
  2. Slit-lamp examination: In this test a vertical beam of light on the surface of your eye is directed & evaluates the shape of cornea
  3. Keratometry: In this circle of light on cornea and measures the reflection to determine the basic shape of your cornea.
  4. Computerized corneal mapping:
  5. Optical coherence tomography and Corneal topography, which records images of cornea to create a detailed shape of your corneas surface which can also measure the thickness of your cornea.

Treatment of Keratoconus :

Corneal Cross linking (CXL) is a developing treatment for Keratoconus and other corneal diseases.Cross linking helps in strengthening the cornea of the eye.
Types of CXL treatments:
A) Epithelium off CXL
B) Epithelium on CXL

Keratoplasty – (Corneal Transplant)

is surgical procedure that replaces opaque front part of the cornea, with healthy donor tissue Type of keratoplasty
Penetrating (full thickness) Cornea Transplant or Penetrating Keratoplasty
b) Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK) c) Corneal Endothelial Keratoplasty

Pterygium :

Is abnormal tissue growth from scleral side to the cornea

Treatment
Only treatment is surgical removal

Post-operative Care

When fully awake the patient is allowed to go home. Eye-drops are normally prescribed. Some medication is also prescribed to minimise pain and discomfort. Severe pain is rare following these operations but the eye will be sore for 24hours and remain red for several days. Nausea and vomiting occasionally occurs but is minimised with appropriate pre-operative medication.
Review

On the first day, at 1 week and 1 month. The final result of surgery is usually known within one month. Children require followup until they are no longer at risk of developing amblyopia

Keratitis

Mostly Keratitis can be treated with Medical treatment & vision can be restored.

Dry Eye

Dry eye usually occurs when tears are inadequate in quantity or quality. Commonly seen in computer professionals and with smart phone overuse. There are other causes like Sjogrens syndrome ,chemical exposure
Can be treated with medical line of treatment